宇宙「消失質量」(missing mass)被澳洲大學生發現澳洲22歲大學生佛瑞塞麥凱維(Amelia Fraser-McKelvie),已破解數十年來困擾天文物理學家的問題,在暑假期間發現部分所謂宇宙的「消失質量」(missing mass)。佛瑞塞麥凱維暑假和摩納希大學(MonashUniversity)物理學院的1支團隊實習時,達成這項突破,找出被稱為「星系絲狀結構」(filament ofgalax)龐大結構內的謎樣物質。摩納希大學天文物理學家皮布雷特(KevinPimbblet)解釋,科學家過去就已偵測到出現在宇宙形成初期的物質,但現在無法確定其位置。皮布雷特告訴法新社:「有消失質量存在,是一般質量,並非黑暗質量…它消失到現在。」「我們不知道它的去向。現在我們確實知道它的行蹤,因為這就是佛瑞塞麥凱維的發現。」佛瑞塞麥凱維是主修航太工程和科學的學生,在針對這個謎樣質量展開鎖定目標的X光搜尋後,她能證實這個質量已移動租房子到綿延浩瀚宇宙的「星系絲狀結構」。皮布雷特稍早的研究成果已顯示,絲狀結構可能就是「消失」物質的所在處,據信消失物質的密度低,但溫度高。皮布雷特表示,天文物理學家過去20年來對「消失」質量已有了解,不過最近幾年才出現明確指出其位置所需的科技。皮布雷特表示,這項發現可推動打造專門設計用來研究質量的新型望遠鏡。(譯者:中央社陳宜君) Aussie student Amelia Fraser-McKelvie discovers "missing mass" A 22-year-old Australian university student has solved a problem which has puzzled astrophysicists for decades, discovering part of the so-called "missing mass" of the universe during her vacation. Undergraduate Amelia Fraser-McKelvie made the breakthrough during a holiday internship with a team at Monash University 's School of Physics , 酒店兼職locating the mystery material within vast structures called "filaments of galaxies".Monash astrophysicist Dr Kevin Pimbblet on Friday explained that scientists had previously detected matter that was present in the early history of the universe but that could not now be located."There is missing mass, ordinary mass not dark mass ... It's missing to the present day," Pimbblet said."We don't know where it went. Now we do know where it went because that's what Amelia found."Fraser-McKelvie, an aerospace engineering and science student, was able to confirm after a targeted X-ray search for the mystery mass that it had moved to the "filaments of galaxies", which stretch across enormous expanses of space.Pimbblet's 591earlier work had suggested the filaments as a possible location for the "missing" matter, thought to be low in density but high in temperature.Pimbblet said astrophysicists had known about the "missing" mass for the past two decades, but the technology needed to pinpoint its location had only become available in recent years.He said the discovery could drive the construction of new telescopes designed to specifically study the mass.Pimbblet admitted the discovery was primarily academic, but he said previous physics research had led to the development of diverse other technologies."Whenever I speak to people who have influence, politicians and so on, they sometimes ask me 'Why should I invest in physics pure research?'. 長灘島And I sometimes say to them: 'Do you use a mobile phone? Some of that technology came about by black hole research'."The pure research has knock-on effects to the whole society which are sometimes difficult to anticipate."Monash student finds Universe’s missing mass May 24, 2011 - A Monash student has made a breakthrough in the field of astrophysics, discovering what has until now been described as the Universe's 'missing mass'. Amelia Fraser-McKelvie, working within a team at the Monash School of Physics, conducted a targeted X-ray search for the matter and within just three months found it – or at least some of it.What makes the discovery all the more noteworthy is the fact that Ms Fraser-McKelvie is not 信用貸款a career researcher, or even studying at a postgraduate level. She is a 22-year-old undergraduate Aerospace Engineering/Science student who pinpointed the missing mass during a summer scholarship, working with two astrophysicists at the School of Physics , Dr Kevin Pimbblet and Dr Jasmina Lazendic-Galloway.The School of Physics put out a call for students interested in a six-week paid astrophysics research internship during a recent vacation period, and chose Ms Fraser-McKelvie from a large number of applicants. Dr Pimbblet, lecturer in the School of Physics put the magnitude of the discovery in context by explaining that scientists had been hunting for the Universe's missing mass for decades."It was thought from a 房地產theoretical viewpoint that there should be about double the amount of matter in the local Universe compared to what was observed. It was predicted that the majority of this missing mass should be located in large-scale cosmic structures called filaments - a bit like thick shoelaces," said Dr Pimbblet. Astrophysicists also predicted that the mass would be low in density, but high in temperature - approximately one million degrees Celsius. This meant that, in theory, the matter should have been observable at X-ray wavelengths. Amelia Fraser-McKelvie's discovery has proved that prediction correct.Ms Fraser-McKelvie said the ‘ Eureka moment' came when Dr Lazendic-Galloway closely examined the data they had collected."Using 票貼her expert knowledge in the X-ray astronomy field, Jasmina reanalysed our results to find that we had in fact detected the filaments in our data, where previously we believed we had not."X-ray observations provide important information about physical properties of large-scale structures, which can help astrophysicists better understand their true nature. Until now, they had been making deductions based only on numerical models, so the discovery is a huge step forward in determining what amount of mass is actually contained within filaments.Still a year away from undertaking her Honours year (which she will complete under the supervision of Dr Pimbblet), Ms Fraser-McKelvie is being hailed as one of Australia 's most exciting 小型辦公室young students. Her work has been published in one of the world's oldest and most prestigious scientific journals, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society."Being a published author is very exciting for me, and something I could never have achieved without the help of both Kevin and Jasmina. Their passion and commitment for this project ensured the great result and I am very thankful to them for all the help they have given me and time they have invested," said Ms Fraser-McKelvie.Dr Pimbblet said that he had under his tuition a very talented student who excelled in performing the breakthrough research."She has managed to get a refereed publication accepted by one of the highest ranking astronomy journals in the 信用卡代償world as a result of her endeavours. I cannot underscore enough what a terrific achievement this is. We will use this research as a science driver for future telescopes that are being planned, such as the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder, which is being built in outback Western Australian."The paper can be found on the Cornell University website.Source:Monash student finds Universe's missing mass 哈佛史密森天體物理中心的天文學家歷時十年,繪製出迄今最完整的臨近宇宙3D地圖。 2M ASS Redshift Survey計畫的目標是瞭解本地宇宙的星系和暗物質分佈。天文學家測量了3.8億光年距離內(或紅移值0.07)的周圍宇宙,共約45,000個星系,覆蓋了95%的周圍空間。地圖中,紫色點代表附近星系,紅色點是遙遠星系。新的地圖將幫助天文學家瞭解銀河系的運動酒店工作。 Source:http://science.solidot.org/
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